About TiO2

Titanium dioxide is a naturally occurring oxide of titanium. It has the highest refractive index of any material known to man, even the diamond, and is one of the whitest materials on earth. When produced as a fine powder, it transforms into a pigment that provides maximum whiteness and opacity. TiO2 pigments are used in paints and coatings, plastics, paper, building materials, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inks and many other commercial products.

However, nature does not yield titanium dioxide in a usable form. It must be carefully mined in one of its pure forms, such as rutile beach sand, and refined into a fine uniform particle size. KRONOS uses both the chloride and sulfate production processes to accomplish this.

Superior Opacity

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a white pigment used in the production of paints and coatings, plastics, papers, fibers and in specialties such as inks, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, glass and ceramics. It has the highest opacity of all white pigments due to its exceptionally high refractive index and subsequent high light-scattering power. Applications using TiO2 are characterized by superior whiteness and brightness, a neutral tone, outstanding dispersibility and excellent tint reduction in colored media.

Crystal Forms

TiO2 is commercially available in two crystal modifications – anatase and rutile. Depending on the crystal modification as well as the type, amount and chemical composition of its surface treatment, TiO2 can be an effective UV-absorber with low photocatalytic activity giving it protective properties for use in exterior applications.

Refraction & Reflectance

The white pigment, TiO2 is an achromatic (color without a hue such as white, black, or gray), inorganic colorant that is insoluble in the respective medium in which it is incorporated. Its refractive index is significantly higher than that of any other white pigment or filler/extender available. It has an exceptionally high reflectance and displays little or no absorption in the wavelength range of visible light. More than 90% of standardized color palettes contain TiO2 pigment due to its superior hiding power, making it virtually irreplaceable even in non-white applications.

More Attributes

Furthermore, TiO2 pigments are non-toxic and easy to disperse in most applications. It is inert in chemical terms, resistant to high temperatures, as well as prevailing atmospheric influences. TiO2 pigments are insoluble in water, organic solvents, alkalis, and most inorganic acids. Commercially available TiO2 pigments primarily consist of near-to spherical surface-treated pigment particles with a diameter between 0,2 and 0,4 µm. Currently, there are no adequate substitutes for TiO2 pigments in most applications.

Chloride Process

KRONOS developed the chloride process and commissioned its first chloride plants in the second half of the 1960s. The products from this process complement the KRONOS titanium dioxide pigments produced by the sulfate process.

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Sulfate Process

KRONOS was granted original patents for the sulfate process and has been producing titanium dioxide pigments using this process continuously since 1916. KRONOS still uses the sulfate process to produce high-quality grades for the coating, ink, fiber and paper industries.

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